Copy a Solaris Boot Drive to a New Disk

If you’ve ever gone to mirror a system drive with Solstice Disk suite, you know how frustrating it can be when you either don’t have any more slices to use for your meta database partitions, or all the space on the disk has already been allocated to existing partitions. While Disk Suite only requires one partition be reserved for its meta database information on boot drives, two are really suggested for redundancy purposes, and in the example below, I found myself needing to mirror a system disk that had only one remaining partition, and no space left that could be used for the meta database.

While I could have taken a small amount of space from the swap partition and re-allocated it to a new meta database partition on slice 7, this solution would not have been elegant, and I would have still only had one meta database partition. As it stood, the system had the following filesystems on the following disk slices:


Part Tag
0 root
1 swap
2 backup
3 usr
4 usr/local
5 opt
6 var
7 unused

In order to bring the system into line with my standards and prepare it for proper mirroring, I would have to carve up another disk, and migrate the data to it.

Here is what the partition table on the new disk looked like:

Current partition table (original):
Total disk cylinders available: 24620 + 2 (reserved cylinders)

Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks
0 root wm 0 1088 1.50GB (1089/0/0) 3146121
1 swap wu 1089 6896 8.00GB (5808/0/0) 16779312
2 backup wu 0 24619 33.92GB (24620/0/0) 71127180
3 wm 6897 6967 100.16MB (71/0/0) 205119
4 wm 6968 7038 100.16MB (71/0/0) 205119
5 opt wm 7039 8853 2.50GB (1815/0/0) 5243535
6 usr wm 8854 12483 5.00GB (3630/0/0) 10487070
7 var wm 12484 24619 16.72GB (12136/0/0) 35060904

Now that everything is all laid out, we can start moving all the data from c1t0d0 to c1t2d0, keeping in mind that we will be merging /usr/local onto /usr on the new system disk… Here we go

Make a new filesystem for /:

# newfs /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s0
newfs: /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s0 last mounted as /
newfs: construct a new file system /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s0: (y/n)? Y

Mount the new / filesystem as /mnt:
# mount -F ufs -o rw /dev/dsk/c1t2d0s0 /mnt
Move the data from c1t0d0s0 to c1t2d0s0:
# ufsdump 0f – / | ( cd /mnt ;ufsrestore xvf – )
Add links
Set directory mode, owner, and times.
set owner/mode for ‘.’? [yn] y
Directories already exist, set modes anyway? [yn] y
DUMP: 405886 blocks (198.19MB) on 1 volume at 406 KB/sec

Unmount /mnt
# umount /mnt

That’s the general idea… Now we just have to do the same thing for the other partitions, leaving out swap, backup, and our two meta database partitions of course. These partitions (1,2,3 and 4) should be left alone for the time being, as they are never mounted as filesystems.

# newfs /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s5
# mount -F ufs -o rw /dev/dsk/c1t2d0s5 /mnt
# ufsdump 0f – /opt | ( cd /mnt ;ufsrestore xvf – )
# umount /mnt
# newfs /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s6
# mount -F ufs -o rw /dev/dsk/c1t2d0s5 /mnt
# ufsdump 0f – /usr | ( cd /mnt ;ufsrestore xvf – )
# umount /mnt
# newfs /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s7
# mount -F ufs -o rw /dev/dsk/c1t2d0s5 /mnt
# ufsdump 0f – /var | ( cd /mnt ;ufsrestore xvf – )
# umount /mnt
Finally, the /usr/local partition
# mount -F ufs -o rw /dev/dsk/c1t2d0s5 /mnt
# ufsdump 0f – /usr/local | ( cd /mnt/local ;ufsrestore xvf – )
# umount /mnt

Now that we have all the data moved, we still don’t have a disk that is bootable. Since the whole idea here is for us to end up with a new bootable system disk, we have to install bootblocks onto the new system disk. This is done with the installboot command:

# installboot /usr/platform/`uname -i`/lib/fs/ufs/bootblk /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s0

Now that we have the bootblocks needed to boot the solaris kernel, the last thing we have to do is make sure our new vfstab file points to all the right partitions.

Mount the new / partition:
# mount -F ufs -o rw /dev/dsk/c1t2d0s0 /mnt
Edit the new vfstab file:
# vi /mnt/etc/vfstab
For the information given in this example, this file will contain the following entries:

#device device mount FS fsck mount mount
#to mount to fsck point type pass at boot options
fd /dev/fd fd no
/proc /proc proc no
/dev/dsk/c1t2d0s1 swap no
/dev/dsk/c1t2d0s0 /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s0 / ufs 1 no
/dev/dsk/c1t2d0s5 /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s5 /usr ufs 1 no
/dev/dsk/c1t2d0s6 /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s6 /var ufs 1 no
/dev/dsk/c1t2d0s7 /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s7 /opt ufs 2 yes
swap /tmp tmpfs yes

Notice that the target number will remain 2, not move to 0 when we swap the disks and boot from the new one. To resolve this, it is strongly suggested that you rebuild the solaris device tree and change the vfstab file to reflect the new disk position.

That is everything! We now shutdown the system, swap the positions of c1t0d0 and c1t2d0 and reboot off our new system disk. We are now ready to move onto the mirroring process.

18 thoughts on “Copy a Solaris Boot Drive to a New Disk

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  5. Should these be set to slice 6 and 7 respectively?

    EG # mount -F ufs -o rw /dev/dsk/c1t2d0s6/mnt
    # mount -F ufs -o rw /dev/dsk/c1t2d0s7 /mnt
    instead of just using s5

    # newfs /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s6
    # mount -F ufs -o rw /dev/dsk/c1t2d0s5 /mnt
    # ufsdump 0f – /usr | ( cd /mnt ;ufsrestore xvf – )
    # umount /mnt
    # newfs /dev/rdsk/c1t2d0s7
    # mount -F ufs -o rw /dev/dsk/c1t2d0s5 /mnt
    # ufsdump 0f – /var | ( cd /mnt ;ufsrestore xvf – )
    # umount /mnt
    Finally, the /usr/local partition
    # mount -F ufs -o rw /dev/dsk/c1t2d0s5 /mnt
    # ufsdump 0f – /usr/local | ( cd /mnt/local ;ufsrestore xvf – )
    # umount /mnt

  6. I have used the above procedure to copy the contents of an entire disk over to a different disk. It worked very nicely, and now I have a system with a mirrored disk set (using DiskSuite).
    Thanks, great article

  7. You may also want to boot to an alternative source (cd/dvd/net) in order to ensure that you are not trying to deal with changing content

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  9. Good document.

    With this document I did on SUNfire 440 with Solaris 10. But problem is that its took long time to take backup & restore with 3 GB data using #ufsdump 0f – /usr | ( cd /mnt ;ufsrestore xvf – )

    Near about 3 hours it tooks take backup & restore with 3 gb data.

    Is there any solution to minimise the time.

    One more thing I am not able to rebuild /etc/path_to_inst file with following command in Solaris 10 release 10/6

    # devfsadm -r /mnt -p /mnt/etc/path_to_inst

    Thanks …

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  12. Just use dd to make an image of the boot disk. Both disks geometry must be exactly the same.
    Then use the new disk clone as a second boot device at the ok (Open Boot Prom) environment and boot from your new disk.

    Easy as pie!

  13. in some cases (if this is FC disk) you might also need to perform:
    devfsadm -r /mnt
    disks -r /mnt

    in order for the boot process not to stuck.
    also dont forget to change the /mnt/etc/vfstab if you insert the disk to other slot.

  14. I came here to verify that I was doing my move correctly, then it hit me I missed one very important item: the 2GB limitation of OBP. Not only must the root filesystem be 2GB or smaller, it must reside in the first 2GB of the drive. Tonight I moved Solaris 8 SPARC from a failing 4GB hard drive, along with a still-operating 9GB secondary drive, to a 64GB SSD on a SCSI-to-SATA adapter. I originally tried using the entire disk as a single filesystem which I had done before on a Solaris 10 x86 system. This, of course, failed. Next I duplicated the slice layout of the original drive but using larger slices commensurate to their usage on the new drive. I neglected that my swap slice resides at the beginning of the drive and is 2GB in size, thus pushing my root filesystem out of the first 2GB of the drive. I swapped positions of the root and swap slices, ensuring root is 1.9GB, applied the boot block and tah dah! One revitalized Axil 320 running Solaris 8 on a 64GB SSD. Thanks for the help!

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